|HISTORICAL ANCESTRY OF JAMES & SOPHRONIA HARTSELL||PAGE 40|
HARTSELL - 1830's
See "Evidence for Ancestry of David Hartzell" and "The Life of David Hartzell 1805-1865" for the latest and more detailed information on David Hartzell.
The 1830 Ohio Census lists 23 Hartsell households.
The family was living in or around Ellerton, Ohio, six miles north of Germantown, Ohio. This is about 10 miles southwest of Dayton, Ohio. They were in about the same place as they were in 1820, judging by the names of neighbors in the 1820 and 1830 census.
The 1830 Census of Jefferson Township, Montgomerty County, Ohio has:
Head of Household: Adam Hartsell (David's father) In household: male, age 60-69 (Adam) female, age 60-69 (Christina) male, age 30-39 (20-29) (census error; possibly Daniel Hartzell) male, age 30-39 (20-29) (census error; David Hartzell) Head of Household: Leonard Hartsell (Adam's son) In household: male, age 30-49 (Leonard) female, age 20-29 (Delilah Weiss) male, age under 5 (Willis?) male, age under 5 (Lewis?) male, age under 5 (Adam?) Head of Household: John Hartsell (Adam's son) In household: male, age 30-39 (John) female, age 20-29 (Susannah Heck) female, age 5-10 female, age 5-10 male, age under 5 male, age under 5 male, age under 5
For the census error mentioned above, the "Evidence" document has an image of that page for 1830 Jefferson Township, Montgomery County, Ohio. There are many corrections. Assuming that the census taker mis-marked age 20-29, many things fall into place. David Hartzell has not been found anywhere else in 1830. At age 24 and unmarried, David was most likely still at home. The other male was most likely a brother. Adam did not own land, so these two males were not likely to be live-in farm hands.
The 1830 Census of Marion County, Indiana (Indianapolis area) has:
Head of Household: Frederick Hartsell (Adam's brother) In household: male, age 40-49 (Frederick) female, age 40-49 (Sarah Houghman) 3 males 15-19 (Peter & Phillip?) 2 males 10-14 1 male 5-9 1 female 10-14 2 females 5-9 2 females under 5 In 1840, this Frederick was in Wayne Twp., along with sons Peter and Phillip in separage households.
The 1830 Census of Union County, Indiana has:
Head of Household: George Hartzel (Adam's cousin) In household: male, age 40-49 (George, born 1780-90) female, age 30-39 (Susannah Toney) 1 male 5-9 1 male under 5 1 female 10-14 1 female 5-9 1 female under 5 This was the George who died soon after the census and whose executor and a primary benificiary was James Alexander.
According to the 1840 Census, David Hartzell had not attended school. It says he could read and write, but other sources say he could not.
In 1831, Barbara Nipp, at the age of 15, arrived with her family in the Connersville Indiana area (in Fayette County), according to her obituary.
This is roughly the orientation of the counties we're interested in; left is West:
The biggest link of David Hartzell to the Hartzells of Franklin County VA is this:
This George was Adam's cousin, son of John and Catherine (Schneider) Hartzell. James Alexander was obviously very close to both George and David. Or, all this is an incredible coincidence, with David picking both "James" and "Alexander" for his son's name.
On Oct. 10, 1828, this George Hartsell had purchased 160 acres 2 miles east of Kitchell, Indiana in Union County. It was the SW 1/4 of Section 24 in Harrison Township, in the NE corner of the county, and 1/2 mile from the Ohio border.
David's brother Leonard bought land in September,1832 in NW Rush County, Indiana, 2.5 miles east of the present town of Carthage. It was in Center Township, 46 acres, in Section 22. He sold this in 1835. In March 1840, he bought the S 1/2 of the NE 1/4 of Section 16 in Ripley Township, 1/2 mile from his 1832 land. He sold this land in 1844, and also signing was William Hartsell (unknown relationship). Between 1844 and 1850, he moved to Wabash County, Indiana. There were other apparent relatives in that county. (Leonard died in 1878 in Iowa, perhaps near where uncle Frederick died in 1855 in Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa - far SE corner of the state.)
We had wondered how David Hartzell met Barbara Nipp when he was seemingly in Fayette County, while she was apparently living with her uncle George in Rush County. The "Leonard connection" may explain it. David could have gone there at first with Leonard, and maybe George Nipp lived nearby and/or they went to the same church. George Nipp's 1837 land just NE of Rushville was 8 miles from Leonard's. There could have been a church between them. David could have met Barbara through visits to Leonard. Or, David may have had a shoemaking shop in Rushville, with George Nipp living nearby.
By 1835, David Hartzell seemed to be established in or near Connersville, Indiana. Maybe this was a bigger town, and maybe he had a shoemaking shop there. The biographical sketch of James A. Hartsell in the Appendix says David "made his way there from Ohio". He probably traveled on what is now Route 44 or he may have traveled on the Old National Road (now U.S. 40) out of Dayton, Ohio. This road, the first overland route west, was surveyed and trees & brush were cleared for its first traffic through Indiana by 1832. It entered Indiana at Richmond, went through Indianapolis, through Terre Haute, and on into Illinois. The road passed through Cambridge City, about 12 miles north of Connersville.
In 1835, David Hartzell was 29 years old and he was courting 19 year old Barbara Nipp. On May 15, 1836, they were married in Connersville. He was 30, she was 20. The minister who performed the wedding ceremony was George Harlan, M.G. (Regularly ordained minister of the gospel in the Church of Christ).
A month later Barbara became pregnant and therefore was pregnant through the winter of 1836-37. On March 18, 1837, James Alexander Hartsell was born. David Hartzell was now 32 years old and Barbara was 22.
A year later, on March 11, 1838, David and Barbara Hartzell had a baby daughter, and they named her Margaret.
David's daughter Rebecca Ann Hartzell was born in October, 1839, according to her great-granddaughter Evelyn Gordon.
David and Barbara Hartzell appear to have made their first home about 2 1/2 miles east of present day Connersville along what is now Route 44. Why we think this will be explained soon when we get to 1840. He could very well have been living on Walker land. David's occupation is presumed to be shoemaker.
Recap on where David Hartzell's family were in the 1830's:
father Adam: had died?
Wythe County, page 345 Head of Household: Phillip Nipp In household: male, age 50-59 (Phillip) female, age 40-49 probably 2nd wife Nancy female 15-19 Milly? female 10-14 Barbara (our ancestor)? female 10-14 Christena? female 5-9 Rebecca? female under 5 Rachel? 1st wife Catherine must have died by this time. Son Andrew is not listed (probably the eldest).
From Mary B. Kegley: "On November 8, 1830, the court orders has this item which was published in my Vol. 3 of Abstracts of court orders of Wythe County,VA. 1821-1830, on page 161. It states: Andrew Nip, Milly Nip, BARBARA Nip, children of Philip Nip by his wife Catherine are upwards of age 14 and chose Philip Nip their guardian and he was appointed for Christena and Rebecca, who are under age 14 years. No other explanation or information, but this gives you the names of her brothers and sisters as well. There are many reasons to have guardians appointed: (1) mother had died (2) the children were to inherit from an estate (3) mother deserted them, and perhaps many others. If just one child who was under age they have to have a guardian to give permission for marriage. etc. etc."
Somewhere around this time Catherine must have died, and somewhere around this time Phillip married his second wife Nancy (named in the 1850 census). Perhaps one or both of these are the reasons for the guardianship thing.
From this court order we get many important and fascinating clues. The most important for us is that it specifically names the children of Phillip Nipp as of Nov. 1830, or as of whatever time the court proceedings actually happened. It specifically names Andrew, Milly, and Barbara as children "by his wife Catherine". This is "our" Barbara, and therefore her mother Catherine is our ancestor.
Also important to us are the names Christena and Rebecca. This information links this Phillip to the Catherine Lindemuth shown on the Clifton's web page. It also links to Hamilton's web page which shows Teany (Christena) born in 1817 in Wythe County, Rachel and Rebecca as children of Phillip and Nancy, and that Phillip married Nancy before 1825.
The court order implies that the three youngest girls are not by Phillip's wife Catherine, but no proof of this. The female under 5 in the census must be the Rachel named by Hamilton and the Cliftons.
Barbara was apparently still in Wythe county for the 1830 census, and also for the Nov. 1830 court order for guardianship. If Barbara’s obituary is accurate, it says she "emigrated to Fayette County Indiana at the age of 15", so that would have been in 1831 (she was born in Dec.), and after the guardianship court order. Did this have something to do with her move? She had to have gone with someone. Did Phillip leave and return to Wythe County by 1840?
Barbara married David Hartzell on May 15, 1836 in Connersville, Indiana. They must have courted for a year or more, so Barbara must have been in the Connersville area by the summer of 1834-35. Who was she living with up to the marriage? Was Phillip in the Connersville area 1831-1836? After Barbara married did Phillip return to Virginia? What role did George of 1812 Indiana play in all this?
"Uncle" George Nipp had moved to Rush County by 1830, just west of Fayette County, and that seems a little far for Barbara and David to have met and courted. Since this is the only Nipp we know of in the area, and since George may have been a relative of Barbara, here is his 1830 Indiana census information:
Rush County, Indiana, 1830, page 302 Head of Household: George Nipp In household: male, age 50-59 (George) female, 40-49 (Rebecca as indicated in 1850 census) male 15-19 John? female 15-19 Jane? female 10-14 Anna? female 10-14 Martha? male 5-9 William? male under 5 Leonidas? male under 5 Reuben? Nancy would have been about 21 and probably married. John's biographical sketch is in the Appendix, which names the children.
LINDEMUTH - 1830's
Johannes Lindemuth, father of Catherine and grandfather of Barbara, died about 1831 in Wythe County Virginia. This is the same year that Barbara had supposedly moved to Fayette County Indiana.
WALKER - 1830's
William Walker is listed in the 1830 Indiana Census in Fayette County:
Head of household: William Walker; page 34 1 male 50-60 (William, 53) 1 male 20-30 (son William, 24) 3 males 15-20 (Joseph, Alex, 1 unknown) 1 male 10-15 (Willis) 2 males 5-10 (James, Samuel) 1 male under 5 (John) 1 female 40-50 (wife Jane, 47) 1 female 15-20 (Francis) 1 female under 5 (Jane/Louisa) Notes: William would be 53. Jane would be 47. Henry, 27, was married in 1826. William the son would be 24 Joseph and Alex at 16 and 14 almost fit the 15-20 grouping. Willis at 11 fits 10-15. James and Samuel, 5 and 6, fit 5-10. John, 2, is under 5. Frances would be 15. One female under 5 could be Jane/Louisa who "died young". There is one male 15-20, which could easily be a hired hand or a relative (David Hartzell would be 24).
Note the 1833 deaths shown in the Springersville Cemetery information in the appendix. Three of Joseph's siblings died in July and August, and his nephew (son of Henry) died in July. There appears to have been an epidemic.
The 1830 Illinois Census has several Walkers in Shelby County, including a William 70-80 years old, William 30-40, James 40-50, Samuel 40-50. Ages don't match any of "ours", these could have been relatives. Keep in mind that Walker is a fairly common name.
In 1837 Joseph Walker went West and spent two months engaged in
trading, visiting different parts of what was then considered the
far West. At the end of that time he returned to Fayette County,
Indiana, and launched into the business of buying and selling cattle
and hogs, finding his market in Cincinnati, and driving the stock
over the public highway.
David Corbet, Ross County, Union Township, page 216 (same man as in 1820?) Joseph Corbet, Ross County, Union Township, page 213 (Joseph James?) Samuel Corbett, Fayette County, Jefferson Township, page 304
Notes: from marriage records, David and James could be Jane
The 1830 Indiana Census (p. 66) shows a Thomas Dorsey in Clark County; no township is given. He and his wife were both 40-49 years old, thus born 1781-1790, which is in the ballpark. There were two young girls in the household age 5 - 9, which would include Sarah's age of 6. Starting with the oldest, there was one male 20-29, one male 15-19, one male 10-14, and two males 5-9. There were two females 15-19, and two females 5-9. We don't know if they were all his children.
On May 22, 1835, a Thomas Dorsey bought 25 acres of land for $200 in
Waterloo Township, Fayette County, Indiana. It was part of the
NE 1/4 of Section 4 (Deed Record Book H, page 154). This is
significant, because it is not far from his future son-in-law
Joseph Walker. He sold the land Feb. 20, 1837 for $400.
In 1831, the first railroad locomotive, the Dewitt Clinton, was built. At the same time, when David Hartzell was 25 years old, the Battle of the Alamo took place, where Davy Crocket and Jim Bowie were killed. John McCormick invented his reaper in 1834. Andrew Jackson was President 1829-1837, and Martin Van Buren was President 1837-1841 (when James A. Hartsell was born). Up until 1837, plows had been made of wood, but in 1837 John Deere developed the first steel plow.
Let's take a look at what life was like in Indiana around 1835, when the U.S. Government thought the land west of the Mississipi River was useless to the white man and declared it the permanent home of the Indian, and when David Hartzell was thirty years old. This is a quote from somewhere:
"Most of the early pioneers of Indiana made or grew almost everything they used, for manufactured articles were at a premium in the early days of the state. The goods sold in stores, shipped down the river from Pittsburgh and Cincinnati or up from New Orleans, were costly for people who had to depend chiefly upon barter instead of money. Their cloth of wool and flax was spun in their own homes. In summer, adults as well as children went barefooted most of the time, and in winter, those who could not afford to buy boots and were incapable of making them wore shoepacks and moccasins and leggings. Corn, game, and pork were the principal items of diet. Whiskey, made in stills in the woods, was the universal drink, imbibed straight by the men and in diluted toddies by the women. Tobacco was grown, cured, and consumed on the farm. Soap was made with the lye from wood ashes. Such items as knives, axes, chains, guns, gunpowder, pins and needles could not be manufactured at home, but because roads were few and poor and distances were great, trips to village stores and artisans were occasions to be long postponed and prepared for.
"In those days, living in towns and villages differed very little from living in the woods, except that stores were more conveniently at hand and neighbors could be quickly called upon in emergencies. In some respects, because townspeople lived closer together, town life was worse than farm life, for there were no sewage systems and no community removal of trash and garbage, and animals in towns ran at large just as they roamed unrestrained in the country. Consequently sanitation was a problem, and the lack of it was a constant threat to comfort as well as health. Cholera, smallpox, and typhoid epidemics were frequent, and there were no hospitals where the sick could be isolated and cared for. Stumps and mudholes obstructed the streets, which were unpaved except occasionally in the centers of towns, where cobblestones and wooden blocks were sometimes used. Sidewalks were cowpaths, sometimes boarded but generally not. Liquid mud made both streets and walks impassable after heavy rains. Yet such rains were often welcomed if only because they washed away collected offal and the carcasses of dead animals. A "gully-washer" was better than a "sod-soaker", but best of all was a "trash-mover".
"No public lighting systems illuminated the streets of towns, although sometimes merchants and tavern keepers hung lamps outside their establishments, and no water systems served the inhabitants, except in a few of the more enterprising places such as Brookville, where in 1820 a three-inch pipeline of green sycamore saplings was laid to a spring in the hills nearby. Cisterns, open wells, rain barrels, and town pumps supplied communities with water for washing and drinking. Fire departments were no more than neighborhood bucket brigades. Each house had its outdoor privy, but men generally scourned the use of such facilities as effeminate and betook themselves to the alleys and bushes. In summer, townspeople lived with swarms of flies on their food at the table and on their faces at night and accepted gnats and mosquitoes as inescapable evils in their houses, window screens not yet being invented.
"Like the countrymen, the village dweller usually raised his own food in a kitchen garden, and kept a cow and pigs and a horse. Many supported themselves by farming tracts of land near their villages, unless they happened to be lawyers, bankers, preachers, tradesmen, or craftsmen such as tanners, cobblers, and blacksmiths, for none of the towns of that era was large enough to support commerce of any significance. Vincennes, for example, had a population of only three thousand when the Lincolns came to Indiana, and New Albany and Madison and Jeffersonville were even smaller. As late as the outbreak of the Civil War, Indiana's largest community, Indianapolis, was inhabited by less than 20,000 people." ...End of quote.
Since Illinois is about to enter the family picture, what is happening over there around this time during the 1830's? Out in what was still being called the Far West, Illinois was slowly becoming populated along it's western rivers and in the extreme south. Total state population was now only 160,000 people. The village of Chicago began in 1833 with five dwelling houses. Many Indians were still in Illinois in 1833. They were in full possession of the land for 50 miles around Mattoon, and there had been an Indian war at Galena in 1832 (far northwest corner of Illinois). The Indians were finally "persuaded" to move west of the Mississippi after 1833. New settlers, mostly German, were coming in from the south by way of rivers, where steamboats had just come into use. Typical houses were 1 or 2 room log cabins with dirt floors. Cooking was done in an open fireplace at one end of the cabin. Abraham Lincoln was a captain in the Illinois Militia in 1832 near Peoria. Good farming help in Illinois earned $120.00 a year plus room & board. An example of food prices: eggs 6 cents a dozen, beef 3 cents a pound, wheat 37 cents a bushel, sugar 10 cents a pound, chickens 1 dollar a dozen, butter 10 cents a pound, Indian corn 10 cents a bushel.
A massive influx of Yankees and European immigrants in the 1830's and 1840's brought cultural diversity and abolitionist sentiment to the northern and central sections of the state.
In Gordon (?-TJP) p. 46-8: "In 1832, a stage coach road was opened from Paris (Ill.) to Hillsboro... And over the muddy thoroughfare came... the drovers, driving to market huge herds of cattle, hogs, and sheep... Buyers... went through the country purchasing stock for as little as they could. With the aid of hired assistants, they drove the animals to Chicago, St. Louis, Alton, Terre Haute, or whatever point they considered the best market."
Construction of the Cumberland (National) Road continued through Ohio and Indiana but was halted during Jackson's administration (1829-1836), and resumed under Martin Van Buren (1837-1841). The road reached Indianapolis in 1834. (??) It reached Vandialia, Illinois, in 1840. According to one account it was well constructed with a macadamized surface and stone bridges.